Improves gut microbiota & function Mannan-oligosaccharide improves gut microbiota and function, and helps to relieve the symptoms associated with intestinal inflammations (constipation & diarrhea) Intestinal inflammations (IBS, IBD, etc.) are often associated…
Intestinal inflammations (IBS, IBD, etc.) are often associated with the destruction of intestinal structural integrity. Mannan-oligosaccharide can improve gut integrity by increasing the length of the small intestinal villus, thickening the wall of the small intestine.
Type II diabetes is associated with obesity, and patients are more likely to develop IR. IR is a condition in which cells no longer respond to the hormone and no longer absorb glucose. Experiments show that Mannan-oligosaccharide is effective in reducing plasma glucose (FBG), hemoglobin A1C (HbA1c), and HOMA-IR, and a synergistic effect is observed when combining Mannan-oligosaccharide and MF (the most widely used first-line drug for the treatment of type II diabetes). It also increases the abundance of Akkermansia muciniphila and Bifidobacterium pseudolongum, which is positively associated with the prevention and treatment of obesity and diabetes (type II) (Fig.1).
Fig.1 Mannan-oligosaccharide effectively improves the indicators of type II diabetes and also regulates the flora structure of the intestines.
Ref: Prebiotic mannan-oligosaccharides augment the hypoglycemic effects of MF in correlation with modulating gut microbiota. Zheng et al. J. Agric. Food Chem. 2018 Apr. 27
There are many forms of allergies, the most common of which are IgE mediated. Allergies develop when the immune system mounts a T helper 2 (TH2) cell-mediated response against allergic epitopes. Common IgE-mediated allergies include those to food (peanuts, cow’s milk, egg, soy, wheat, shellfish and fish) and pollen (Fig.2).
Fig.2 The most common allergens are divided into three types according to different sensitization pathways: inhalation,ingestion and contact.
Mannan-oligosaccharide induces regulatory T cells (Treg) and increases the ratio of Treg cells to TH2 cells (Treg/TH2), which leads to the shift from the IgE to IgG4 isotype. IgG4 antibodies compete with IgE antibodies for food allergens, leading to a desensitization to oral antigens in the gut (Fig.3)
Fig.3 The process of IgE-mediated allergy and desensitization to oral antigens in the gut.
Ref: Food allergy: immune mechanisms, diagnosis and immunotherapy. Yu et al. Nature Reviews Immunology 16, 751–765(2016).
There are many mannose-modified glycoproteins on the surface of human cells. Recent studies have found that pathogenic bacteria, such as Escherichia coli (E.coli), can bind to human cells through the binding of FimH protein at the end of pilus to mannose of glycoprotein. Mannan-oligosaccharide competes for the binding of FimH of E.coli, which abolishes their colonization. Thus, it acts as an antibiotic replacement for the treatment of infections (Fig.4)
Fig.4 iMOS® competes against pathogenic bacteria for host cell binding sites
Ref: Selective depletion of uropathogenic E. coli from the gut by a FimH antagonist. Spaulding CN et al. 2017.Nature 546:528-532.
Prolongs life span
The model organism used in the experiment is Drosophila melanogaster. It is ideal for aging studies due to its relatively short life span and ease of environmental and genetic manipulations.Mannan-oligosaccharide (MOS) supplementation increases the abundance of benign microbes like Acetobacter and thus limits the gut dysbiosis. Usually, the dysregulation of interactions between intestinal epithelium and commensal bacteria leads to excessively elevated proliferation of intestinal stem cells (ISCs). The Mannan-oligosaccharide treatment reduces ISCs proliferation rate and gut shorting by suppressing the stress- and growth-signaling pathways (JAK/STAT and EGFR/MAPK pathways).Mannan-oligosaccharide treatment also enhances the immune system by inducing the expression of antimicrobial peptides. As a consequence, the mean life span is prolonged in both sexes across different genetic backgrounds, regardless of mating status (mated males: increased by 20.2%, mated females: increased by 14.88% and by 27.48% in virgin females) (Fig.5).
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