Plant extracts are plants as raw materials, according to the need for the use of the final product extracted, through the physical and chemical extraction and separation process, directional acquisition and concentration of one or more active components in the plant, without changing its effective component structure and the formation of the product. At present, the product concept of plant extract is relatively broad.
According to the ingredients of extracting plants, glycosides, acids, polyphenols, polysaccharides, terpenoids, flavonoids, alkaloids, etc., according to the characteristics of the final product, can be divided into vegetable oil, immersion paste, powder, lens and so on.
① alkaloids. It is a kind of complicated nitrogen-containing organic compound, which has special physiological activity and medical effect.
such as ephedra contains ephedrine for the treatment of asthma, scopolamine contains spasmodic analgesic effect of scopolamine and so on.
② glycosides are also known as sugar-matching bodies. It is made from a combination of sugar and non-sugar substances. The commonness of glycosides in the sugar part, different types of glycosides have different physiological activities, with many functions.
such as Dihuang leaves contain strong heart effect of the strong heart glycosides, ginseng contains qi, Shengjin, soothing effect of ginsenoside and so on.
③ volatile oil. Also known as essential oil, is a mixture of aroma and volatile oily liquid, composed of a variety of compounds, with physiological activities, in the medical treatment has a variety of functions, such as cough, asthma, sweating, decomposition table Tongli, expectorant, flooding, analgesia, antibacterial and so on.
The content of volatile oil in medicinal plants is rich in lateral cypress, magnolia, Xin Yi, camphor tree, cinnamon dogwood, angelica, Chuanxiong, angelica, mint and so on.
④ tannins (tannins). A mixture of multiple phenols. It is found in many plants, especially in Yang Liuke, Shell Bucket, Polygonum, Rosaceae, legumes, peach genus and cedar plants.
The gall medicinal herbs saltwood on the medicinal plant are called five times times, which contain five times times tannin, and have the functions of convergence, anti-diarrhea and perspiration.
⑤ other ingredients. such as sugar, amino acids, proteins, enzymes, organic acids, oils, waxes, resins, pigments, inorganic materials, etc., each has special physiological functions, many of which are important clinical drugs.